The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012. This Act includes a new authority to impose secondary sanctions on non-U.S. banks. Signed into law on December 31, 2011, the NDAA essentially replicates CISADA’s focus on transactions with designated banks but adds the Central Bank of Iran as a new criterion for sanctions. It also includes a unique provision for “exceptions” to the sanctions: If the president finds that a country made significant reductions in Iranian crude oil purchases, then that country’s financial institutions can receive a 180-day exception from sanctions under the NDAA — even if they otherwise meet the criteria for such sanctions. These exceptions, however, generally have no bearing on other sanctions authorities; China received an NDAA exception in June 2012 and, one month later, a Chinese bank (Bank of Kunlun) suffered exactly the same consequences under CISADA as it would have under the NDAA.
Non-economic sanctions: These include:
Canceling ministerial and summit meetings with a target country;
Denying a target country’s government officials visas to enter the sender country;
Withdrawing a sender country’s ambassador or otherwise downgrading diplomatic and military contacts with a target country;
Blocking a target country from joining international organizations;
Opposing a target country’s bid to host highly visible international events, such as the Olympics;
Withholding foreign aid; and
Instructing a sender country’s directors to vote against new loans to a target country at the World Bank or other international financial institutions.

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